Naxalite the word has been derived from the word “Naxal ” Which came from the village name Naxalbari in West Bengal.
They support Maoist political sentiment and ideology.
Naxalism originated from the separation of CPI(Communist party of India (Marxist)),Which resulted in the formation of CPI(Marxist -Leninist) in 1967 led by Kanu Sanyal and Jangal Santhal and started a violent movement in 1967.
Till 2010 more than 90 districts and and 10 states were Naxalite affected.
Naxalism started in West Bengal and the movement slowly spread across the eastern India in less developed area of
Chattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh through activities of underground groups(CPI Maoist).
It spread rapidly amongst rural tribals and among those who were regularly exploited under the hands of local officials.
Factors responsible for growth of Naxalism:-
1.Mismanagement of forest:-One of the main reason in expansion of Naxalism. Started from British government Monopolisation of forests with many forest laws.Administrative machinery became more exploitative at functional level.
2.Policies for Tribal not Implemented as they were proposed:-after Independence tribals were alienated from the mainstream,there displacement cause by large projects ,issue regarding with food security with them were not fully sorted out.
3.Increasing Inter and Intra regional disparities:Naxalism attracted poor farmers,fishermen,daily labourers.The govt was not able to cut the growing disparities.So the poor people think that Naxalism is the only solution to their problem.
4.Geographical factors:-Naxalism expanded in area covered eith forests which helped them to fight against the police ,army through Guerilla warfare.
5.Youths have been the largest supporters of the Naxalite activities many of them are medical and enginnering students.
6.lack of Industrilization ,not properly implementing land reforms not properly.
7.Lack of basic amenities such as,healthcare,education,job are some of the other factors.
8.loss of Land,lack of agriculture,no houses to live also added to their problems.
Some of the major Maoist insurgency
16 People including 11 CRPF Personnel, 4 Policemen and 1 Civilian killed in a deadly ambush in a thickly forested area of Gheeram Ghati in Sukma district of Chattisgarh.
Naxalite attack in Darbha valley resulted in the deaths of around 25 Indian National Congress leaders including the former state minister Mahendra Karma and the Chhattisgarh Congress chief Nand Kumar Patel.
Six CRPF men were killed and eight personnel, including a deputy commandant, were injured in landmine blasts and gunbattle between the cops and the Maoists that followed the explosions during an anti-Naxal operation near Barha village under the Dumaria police station in Gaya district.
Naxalite rebels killed 75 Indian paramilitary personnel and 1 state police constable in a series of attacks on security convoys in Dantewada(one of the critical maoist area in chattisgarh) district in the central Indian state of Chhattisgarh.
14 coaches of Jnaeshwari express were derailed near kokpara(Kharagpur district in west bengal).kokpara again a critical naxalite area in west bengal.
Bhubaneshwar Rajdhani was hijacked near Jhargram(Kharagpur district),and the troops demanded the release of their leaders.
and there are many more cases …..